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Non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) is a medical condition that is now recognized by conventional medicine. It is characterized by an intolerance to gluten-containing cereals, especially wheat. The symptoms can affect the intestine and other organs (intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms). The symptoms are similar to those of celiac disease or wheat allergy. Avoidance of cereals containing gluten is necessary. This leads to a considerable improvement or even complete disappearance of the symptoms. In this case, there is no allergy to cereals and no celiac disease. The cause of the complaints is the high content of α-amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATI). These have been “bred into” modern cereal varieties. It protects them from pests and inactivates their digestive enzymes in saliva. Unfortunately, it also interferes with human digestive enzymes, causing discomfort. Some laboratories offer the determination of the biomarkers FABP2 (fatty acid binding protein 2) and sCD14 (soluble CD14) in serum. This makes it possible to distinguish between patients with NCWS, healthy patients or celiac disease patients.